The Journal of Buddhist Thought and Culture
Institute for Buddhist Studies


1The Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

© Copyright 2013 Institute for Buddhist Studies. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Published Online: Apr 01, 2019


佛教自东汉传入中国以后 经过汉至三国两晋时期佛教输入和模仿的第一阶段以后,在北朝 唐代时期进入了快速发展、改造和逐步中国化的阶段至宋元明清时期佛教已经完全本地化。佛教在中国的发展 除了其在印度传统佛教思想的基础上 根据中国本地国情适应和调整的内在原因外 还在于自东晋以后争取到了历代统治者及其广大民众大力支持的外在因素 故此发展迅速 不仅可与中国本地产生的道教分庭抗礼 很多时期甚至还压过一头 以至佛寺佛塔在全国遍地开花 到处可见 并且规模等级不断提高 几可比拟于皇宫建筑 同时 僧尼人众不断扩大 势力得到空前的壮大 从而对中国各时期社会政治、经济、文化艺术等各个方面造成了重大的历史影响 成为国内外学术界的重要研究对象。

佛教在发展过程中 佛教建筑和佛教艺术作品等是佛教思想传播和阐释的重要实物媒介 发挥了不可替代的重要作用。经过千百年的洗礼 中国大地上留下了大量的佛教寺庙、佛塔、石窟、佛教雕塑和壁画、佛教文献、佛教用品等遗迹遗物。因此 佛教考古学调查、发掘和研究 已经成为中国考古学的重要组成部分和重要分支学科。

.中国佛教考古是以佛教遗迹遗物为研究对象的考古学分支 主要分石窟寺、平地和山地佛寺两大部分 其中包括与两者密切相关的造像、壁画、碑刻、经幢、佛教用品等等 涉及到古代历史、古代建筑史、美术史、哲学宗教史、古代文献学、民族学、科技考古、中外文化交流史等诸多研究科目。目前 中国石窟寺考古研究较为系统和独立 成果丰富 蔚为大观 而平地和山地佛寺遗址的考古研究则相对比较薄弱 尚需要进一步发展和提高。

下面 我将从中国佛教考古学调查和发掘回顾、主要研究课题、以及问题和展望等三个方面进行简要论述 诚祈学界同仁指导和批评。


Buddhism was introduced into China from the Eastern Han Dynasty , and after imput and imitation of Chinese Buddhism to the Three Kingdoms period of the first stage, it entered a rapid development, reform and gradually phase of chinese localization during the period of the Northern Dynasties and Tang Dynasty, until Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, Buddhism has been completely localized.

Development of Buddhism in China, in addition to its intrinsic reason that on the basis of the traditional Indian Buddhist thought, then adapt and adjust to local conditions of China, but also because of the extenal factors that after the Eastern Jin Dynasty it got the strong support of the rulers and the general public.

Therefore, its rapid development can not only rival with Taoism, many times, it even pressure over the Taoism. It led that Buddhist stupa in the country as well as everywhere, and the level of the scale was constantly improved. a few can be compared with the palace buildings.

Meanwhile all the monks and nuns who constantly expanding forces have received unprecedented growth.

In the development process of the Buddhism, as the spread and interpretation medium of the Buddhist thought, Buddhist architecture and works of art played an irreplaceable important role. So Buddhist archaeological surveys, excavations and research have become an important part and branch of Chinese archaeology.

Chinese Buddhist archaeology is an archaeology branch that study with the Buddhist relics.

it is divided into two parts, cave temples, plains and mountain temple.

Currently, Chinese Cave Temple archaeology research is comparatively systematic and independent. It also got a lot of rich results. But the flat and mountain temple ruins of archaeological research is relatively weak, it still needs further development and improvement.

Although Chinese Buddhist archaeology have got great achievements. there are still many problems. Cave Temple partitions, staging still needs to be fully carried out. Relationships across regions and between regions within the cave temples and the comprehensive study of the cave temples are still relatively weak.

There are many Buddhist relics that only be excavated of the layout. There are almost no Buddhist temple ruins that were completely excavated. The reports of the Buddhist archaeological sites is so rarely that it can not fulfill with the needs of researhers.

Comparative Study of fragmented temple is not comprehensive enough. Buddhist sects and Buddhist temples in the form of relationship is not clear and its relationship with are Cities, towns, etc. are worth to explore.

In recent years, more and more scholars are concerned and paying attention to the Buddhist archaeology.Surveys and excavations of the ruins began to greatly promoted the development of Buddhism-related archaeological research.Related researches become more sophisticated, systematic, and technological.

It shows that the development of Chinese Buddhist archeology is incomparably great.