The Journal of Buddhist Thought and Culture
Institute for Buddhist Studies

화엄불교의 번뇌론

Young-you Jin1
1Ven. Bon-gak

© Copyright 2012 Institute for Buddhist Studies. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Published Online: Apr 01, 2019


화엄 번뇌론의 특징은 화엄의 보살도가 중도(中道)와 반어법에 의해서 탐진치 등 일체 번뇌가 도리어 보살행의 도구가 된다고 한다. 왜냐하면 보살이 번뇌문을 통로로 삼아서 도리어 중생을 교화하기 때문이다. 곧 보살행을 일으키는 서원의 원동력을 중생의 번뇌와 고통에 두고 있다는 것이다. 화엄교학0)1서는 먼저 『구사론』과 유식학에서 주장한 번뇌의 교의를 그대로 받아서 서술함과 동시에 소승과 시교,종교에서의 번뇌관을 밝히고, 이어서 화엄 원교(圓敎)의 번뇌관으로서 ‘번뇌즉보리’와 ‘일단일체단’의 단혹론을 주장한다. 세친(世親)이 번뇌를 끊는 데에 초중후(初中後)가 없는것이 등잔의 불꽃이 초중후가 없는 것과 같다고 말한 것을 예로 들고 있다. 결론적으로 중생에게 고통을 수반하는 번뇌병은 신심과 보리심으로 치유 할 수 있는 것이고, 보살도에서 바라보면 보살이 서원을 세우는 계기가 되는 것이 중생의 번뇌이다.' 그리고 궁극적으로는 중도실상(中道實相)에서 바라보면 원융무애하고 본래청정하다. 따라서 절대적인 깨끗함도 절대적인 더러움도 없는 공성(空性)을 깨달음으로서 ‘번뇌즉보리’에 나아가고 ‘구래부동불(舊來不動佛)’을 깨닫게 된다고 보는 것이 화엄의 번뇌론이다.


In Avatamsaka Sutra, defilement is regarded as an illness of sentient beings that is accompanied by suffering. Led by the illness of defilement, sentient beings generate three poisons (or the three unwholesome roots, which are referred to as ignorance, attachment, and aversion), and are bound by an outcome of ultimately living painful lives. Since human beings have innate Buddhahood, it is said that the belief that one can become Buddha by ridding oneself of defilement as well as by the demonstration of Bodhicitta can cure the illness of defilement.

A characteristic of the defilement theory of Avatamsaka Sutra is that the irony of the bodhisattva path and the middle way resuhs in all defilement, including the three poisons, serving as practices tools of Bodhisattva. This is because Bodhisattva enlightens sentient beings by using the defilement door as a path. In other words, sentient beings' defilement and suffering are the driving forces of a vow that triggers the practices of Bodhisattva.

In Hwaeom Scripture studies, the defilement-related teachings of the Abhidharma Storehouse Treatise and Yogacara are embraced. They also reveal the view towards defilement in the five doctrinal teachings, and claim this view towards defilement in the ultimate teachings of Avatamsaka Sutra is Beonnoi Jeuk Bori (the defilement k e if is bodhi or enlightenment) and Ildan Ilche Dan's ('when one illusion is severed, all are severed) danhok theory (the methodology of stopping defilement). It takes the example where Vasubandhu said that having no beginning, middle, and end in doing away with defilement is like having no beginning, middle, and end in an oil lamp’s flame. In conclusion, the illness of defilement that accompanies the suffering of sentient beings can be healed through a believing mind as well as through Bodhicitta. From the perspective of the bodhisattva path, the defilement of sentient beings is what led to the creation of a Bodhisattva vow. Ultimately, from the perspective of the Middle Way of Reality, it is Weonyung Muae (complete unobstructed inter-penetration of things) and Bollae Cheongjeong (originally pure). As such, the realization of sunyata (the nature of the Void), where there is no absolute cleanness or absolute filthiness, leads to the realization of Beonnoi Jeuk Bori (the defilement itself is bodhi or enlightenment) and Guraebudongbul (the original nature of Buddha).

Keywords: 화엄; 번뇌론; 번뇌즉보리
Keywords: Hwaeom; defilement; Beonnoi Jeuk Bori(the defilement itself is bodhi or enlightenment)