中·日의 佛像紋수막새와 關連資料에 대하여

사가와마사토시 1
Masatoshi Sagawa 1
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1Tohoku Gakuin University

© Copyright 2017 Institute for Buddhist Studies. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Published Online: Apr 01, 2019


中國과 日本의 佛像紋 막새는 수막새가 소량 확인되며, 암막새는 全無하다. 중국의 불상문 수막새로는 6세기전엽 南北朝時代 北魏의 사례를 들 수 있는데, 수도였던 平城(현 大同市)과 洛陽을 중심으로 중방에 化生像(혹은 化生佛)을 배치한 蓮華化生紋 수막새가 발견되고 있다. 특히 낙양 永寧寺의 9층목탑에서는 獸面紋, 蓮花紋, 팔메트(忍冬) 複合蓮花紋으로 이루어진 총 6형식의 수막새와 4형식의 연화화생문 수막새가 ‘天人誕生圖’의 이념에 기초하여 1~9층의 지붕에 구분·시공되었다고 필자는 추정하고 있다.

불상문 수막새의 관련자료로는 20세기 초두에 일본의 大谷探險隊가 신강위구르자치구의 호탄에서 수집한 형틀제작의 蓮華化生像·佛이 있다. 이것들은 본래 사원의 불감 주변에 장식용으로 붙어있던 것으로, 6세기 전반 호탄국의 것으로 여겨진다.

일본의 불상문 수막새는 富貴寺 阿彌陀堂(大分縣 豊後 高田市)의예가 유일하며, 관련자료로는 불상을 상징적으로 표현한 梵字紋 막새, 五輪塔紋 막새, 「南無阿彌陀佛」銘 막새 등이 있다. 이것들은 平安時代後期부터 鎌倉時代에 걸쳐(11세기후반~13세기중엽) 近畿地方과 九州地方을 중심으로 제작되었다. 일본에서는 9세기 초두에 空海와 最澄에 의해 密教가 전해지면서 일본불교의 체계 또한 크게 변화하였다. 또한 11세기 후반에는 末法思想이 유행하면서 왕후귀족부터 서민에까지 浄土教가 확대되고 전국적으로 아미타당이 건립되었다. 富貴寺의 불상문 수막새는 12세기 전엽 阿彌陀佛을 장엄하기 위해 아미타당에 올려진 희소 사례이다.

그 직전인 11세기 후엽 白河天皇은 鎭護國家와 皇權至上의 과시를 위해 胎蔵界와 金剛界 같은 曼茶羅世界의 이념에 기초하여 法勝寺(京都市)를 조영하고, 胎蔵界 大日如来를 나타낸 最古의 범자문 막새를 8각9층목탑에 시공하였다. 또한 法勝寺에서는 1122년경 불사리 봉안의 場인 오륜탑을 문양화한 오륜탑문 막새가 창작·사용되었으며, 그 후 大阪府 남부의 아미타신앙을 기반으로 造寺造佛 活動을 전개하였던 일반 서민이 주체가 되는 집단으로 下賜되었다. 이 오륜탑문 막새는 대일여래를 상징하는 오륜탑을 통한 사리신앙과의 융합, 그리고 아미타 신앙과의 융합을 나타내고 있다. 이러한 불교사상은 1180년 戰亂으로 소실된 奈良 東大寺의 재건을 주도한 重源上人에 의해 더욱 확산되었다. 이렇듯 밀교와 말법사상을 배경으로 하는 大日如来, 供養菩薩과 관련된 막새의 창작은 일본의 독자적인 전개라 할 수 있다.


Studies show that of the early ceramic roof-end tiles decorated with Buddha images, only a limited number of convex tiles have been discovered in China and Japan, while no concave tiles have been found at all. Among the ancient convex roof-end tiles with Buddhist motifs discovered in China so far, those made in Northern Wei (386-534) in the early sixth century and discovered in its two capitals, Pingcheng (present-day Datong) and Luoyang, are discussed extensively with regard to the dharmakaya motif placed at their center and surrounded by lotus petals. Historians have also shown a keen interest in the convex roof-end tiles discovered at the nine-story wooden pagoda called Yongning Temple in Luoyang. Certain of these tiles can be classified into six groups according to the motifs decorating their outer surface, including demonic faces, lotus flowers and the palmette, while those with dharmakaya and lotus motifs are categorized into four groups according to the Buddhist concept of the birth of heavenly beings. I believe that the concept played a key role in the construction of the nine roofs of the pagoda with these ornamental roof-end tiles.

The primary materials for the study of early Chinese convex roof-end tiles with Buddha images include the cast tiles with dharmakaya and lotus motifs unearthed at Khotan in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region by the Japanese archaeologists of the Otani Expedition in the early twentieth century. These tiles, believed to have been made in the kingdom of Khotan in the early sixth century, were originally used to decorate the Shakyamuni shrine in a Buddhist temple.

As for early Japanese convex roof-end tiles decorated with Buddha images, those of Fuki-ji, a Tendai temple in Bungotakada, Oita Prefecture, are the only extant examples. These are closely related with the roof-end tiles decorated with Brahmic scripts, five-ringed pagoda or the “Namo Amitabha Buddha” (南無阿彌陀佛) inscription that were produced between the late Heian Period (794-1185) and the Kamakura Period (1185-1333) in the Kinki and Kyushu regions. The introduction of Tantric Buddhism to Japan by Kukai and Saicho during the early ninth century resulted in a great change in Japanese Buddhism: It led to widespread belief in the ideas of the Latter Day of the Law in the late eleventh century, the spread of Pure Land Buddhism to common people as well as royalty and aristocracy, and the nationwide establishment of Amitabha shrines. Fuki-ji’s tiles are regarded as rare examples which show that they were used to decorate an Amitabha shrine built in the early twelfth century.

In the late eleventh century, Emperor Shirakawa established a Buddhist temple, Hossho-ji, in Kyoto based on the ideologies of Mandala, Garbhakosa-dhatu and Vajradhatu in particular, to fulfill his wish for national peace and prosperity and to promote the imperial authority. Japan’s oldest roof-end tiles bearing sacred Brahmic scripts representing Vairocana Buddha of Garbhakosa-dhatu were used to decorate the octagonal nine-story wooden pagoda of the temple. The decorative roof tiles used by the temple in 1122 include those bearing the image of the five-ringed pagoda, which was built to enshrine the Buddha’s sariras. The pagoda was later conferred to ordinary Amitabha worshippers in the Osaka region, who were devoted to building temples and images honoring the Buddha. The roof tiles decorated with the fiveringed pagoda design represent the union of the pagoda symbolizing Vairocana Buddha with the sarira and Amitabha worship. The tradition prospered and was spread widely by Chogen who played a key role in the restoration of Todai-ji in Nara, which was destroyed by fire during a war in 1180. The creation of roof-end tiles related with Vairocana Buddha and the Offering Bodhisattva is a unique heritage of Japanese Buddhism whose prosperity is based on Esoteric Buddhism and the ideology of the Latter Day of the Law.

Keywords: 불; 보살; 신중; 3단신앙; 유사 동심원적 배치; 불교적 우주관; 건물규모; 가구형식; 의장